Required Foundational Document Resources



Here is a starting place or a review place. I took the CED, things I’ve used in class, and experience with grading FRQs to create this. I’ve linked posts on the title for you! Remember to look at the documents through the lens of the title.

First, consider HOW you teach these documents, especially if you are online or use a LMS.

Check out my Unit Guides for more resources!

Lastly, I break down my weeks for a semester class.


A balance between governmental power and individual rights has been a hallmark of American political development.

How to teach Fed 10 and Brutus 1 together

FEDERALIST NO. 10
Madison’s main argument was that the power of a large republic would be able to control the “mischiefs of faction”. Madison advocated for a large republic where power was broken up between the national and state governments through elected representatives. The larger the republic, the better it would be at protecting its citizens individual rights.

BRUTUS NO. 1
This supported a small, decentralized republic, not a large one. Brutus feared that the multiple factions would threaten individual rights. He believed that the large, centralized government would not be able to represent the people and thus not take into consideration individual rights.

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
Not a governing document, but showcases what is important to the colonists at the time. This document really hits home that the government’s job is the protect the individual rights of the people.


The Constitution emerged from the debate about the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation as a blueprint for limited government.

THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Under appreciated for its role in waging war against Britain, but ultimately fails leading to the Constitutional Convention. Delegates use this to show what they don’t want, and some fight to keep it.

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (INCLUDING THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS)- Check out how they took the Articles and changed it. This is what it’s asking you to do!



The Constitution created a competitive policy-making process to ensure the people’s will is represented and that freedom is preserved. PMI-1

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (INCLUDING THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND
SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS)- (Things like how a bill becomes a law or relationships between the branches)

FEDERALIST NO. 51
The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments. Everyone has a job. Everyone has someone to check to make sure they aren’t doing shady things.




Federalism reflects the dynamic distribution of power between national and state governments. CON-2

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (INCLUDING THE BILL OF RIGHTS AND SUBSEQUENT AMENDMENTS)




The Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause as well as other constitutional provisions have often been used to support the advancement of equality. PRD-1

“LETTER FROM A BIRMINGHAM JAIL” (BY MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.)
Check out this podcast for a really great overview. This needs attention and I really feel like the whole document needs to be taught… which is why I gave a lesson and podcast.


The presidency has been enhanced beyond its expressed constitutional powers.

FEDERALIST NO. 70– Energy, energy, energy. Lots of energy. A Ham argues for a unitary (meaning one person, not a like Rome) executive is necessary to: ensure accountability in government and enable the president to defend against legislative encroachments on his power. If you have ONE person in charge, it’s better. (According to Hamilton)



The design of the judicial branch protects the Supreme Court’s independence as a branch of government, and the emergence and use of judicial review remains a powerful judicial practice

FEDERALIST NO. 78– Neither the power of the purse nor the sword. Can’t spend money, can’t go to war, so pretty weak, right? Hamilton dives into the necessity of a judicial branch and why they need to be isolated from politics.


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